This article primarily centralizes with the pathogenesis of Diabetic retinopathy leading to blindness and its Homoeopathic approach through repertorization.
Key words: Diabetes, Diabetic Retinopathy, Repertory
Diabetes is a chronic debilitating metabolic disorder that has reached epidemic proportion in the developed and developing world. Both the prevalence and incidence of Diabetes mellitus continuous to rise inexorably with no country in the world spared. Diabetes poses the most important threat to public health in the 21st century consuming a disproportionate share of health care resources owing to its deleterious effects on the micro and macro vasculature with effects on every organ in the body.1
“Local diseases do not exist, but solely localized morbid, affections are to be found”Dr. Pierre Schmidt
INCIDENCE AND PROGRESSION OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY
Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness among adults aged 20-65 years , the number of affected individuals aged 65 yrs older is particularly increasing. Retinopathy increases in prevalence and severity with increasing duration and poorer control of diabetes.
In type 1 diabetes, retinopathy is not detectable for at least 3 years after diagnosis. In type 2 diabetes, retinopathy is present in up to 20% of patients at diagnosis and may be a presenting feature.
According to American academy of ophthalmology , age related eye diseases including cataracts, diabetic retinopathy , glaucoma and age related macular degeneration are expected to increase from 28 million today to 43 million by the year of 2020.5
In 2010, Varma demonstrated that the 4 year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy and the incidence of clinically significant macular edema (CSOM) are high.3
EFFECTS OF DIABETIS MELLITUS ON EYE IN CAUSING BLINDNESS5
Abnormal new blood vessel (neo- vascularization) which occurs on the vitreous surface of the retina may extend into the vitreous cavity and causes vitreous hemorrhage. Vision loss with proliferative retinopathy may be severe.4
NON PROLIFERATIVE LESION
It develops and produces increased capillary permeability, micro aneurysm, hemorrhage, exudates and macular edema; and macular edema causes visual loss if untreated.
According to American academy of ophthalmology , age related eye diseases including cataracts, diabetic retinopathy , glaucoma and age related macular degeneration are expected to increase from 28 million today to 43 million by the year of 2020.4
Homoeopathy is a scientific expression of relationship between the science of pathology on one hand and science of pharmacology on the other; it is unaffected by advances in knowledge of either of these sciences, except that there by it may be applied more exactly .Its application is an art.2
THE CLINICAL REPERTORY8
EYE –VISION- Blurred: Arg.nit., Arn., GELS., Lil t., Nat m., Physos., Psor.
EYE -VISION- Colors, black: Bell., Cic., Cimicif., Clem., Kali-c., Kalm., Lach., NAT-M., Phos., Sep., Sil., Stram.
EYE- VISION- Flickering: Agar., Ant .t., Ars., Bell., Calc.fl., Caust., Cycl., Graph., Hyos., LACH., PHOS., Psor., Sep., SULPH., Thuja.
EYES- RETINA- Detachment: AUR.M , Dig, Gels, Naph, Pil.
EYES- VISION- BLINDNESS– Acon, Apis, AUR, Bell, Calc, Caust, CON, GELS, PHOS, MERC, Tab, Zinc.
EYES –VISION-Blindness, amourosis etc.
Aco., agar.,am-c,anac.,ant-c., ant-t.,arn.,ars.,asar., aur., bar-c.,BELL.,Bry., CALC.C., can., caps.,caus.,cham., Chin, CIC, Con, Gels, Graph, Hyos, Lyco, MERC, NAT.M, OP, PHOS, Puls, Sep, Stram, Tab, SULPH.
EYES-VISION-dark, colours, spots etc.
Agar, Anac, Aur, Bar-c, Calc.c, Caus, China, Con, Euphr, NAT.M, MERC, PHOS, SEP, SIL.
CLINICAL REPERTORY- J H. CLARKE9
EYE- RETINA- Detachment of . Gels., Nph.
EYES- VITROUS HAEMORRHAGE – Lach.
EYES- RETINA – DETACHED – Gels.
The incidence and prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy is being increasing in years. Homoeopathy had proved itself in its wide range of treatment through various modes of selection of appropriate remedies. Through the means of Repertorization in cases like Diabetic retinopathy it is been best in cure.
1. Harris M.I, Flegal K.M, Cowie C C , Eberhardt M.S., Goldstein D.E, Littile R.R, Prevalence of Diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in U.S.adults. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Diabetes Care 1998;21(4):475-76.
2. James Krauss, M.D., Boston. Journal of the American Institute Of Homoeopathy, March, 1913,P.936.
3. Varma R, Choudry F, Klein R, Chung J, Torres M, Azen SP. Four year Incidence and Progression Of Diabetic Retinopathy and Macular Edema, the los Angles Latino Eye Study. Am J opthalmo 2010; 149(5):752-61.
4. Stephen J Mc Phee, Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment, Disorders of eyes and lids; 2011.,Mc.Graw Hill: P.187.
5. Mohan Harsh. Textbook Of Pathology, The Eye, ENT and Neck. Sixth edition., Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers(p)LTD: p.508-509.
6. Boericke W. New manual of homoeopathic material medica and repertory. Augmented edition. New Delhi: B. Jain publishers (p)Limited.2005.p.645,646,648.
7. Boger C.M. Boenninghausen’s Characteristic material medica and repertory. Reprint edition. New Delhi: B.Jain Publishers (p) Limited; 2003.P.338,340.
8. Shedd P.W. The Clinical repertory: : B. Jain publishers(p)Limited.1995.p.26-27.
9. Clarke J.H. A clinical repertory to the dictionary of material medica. : B. Jain publishers(p)Limited.2001.p.107.
10.. Knerr B calvin. Repertory of Hering’s Guiding symptomsof our material medica: B. Jain publishers(p)Limited.2000.p.281.
About the Author
Dr Abbi Vandhana Suresh,BHMS MD(Hom)
Lecturer at Venkateshwara Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Chennai.
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